Manufacturing

Available Now: Reports on Electricity Saving Potentials in U.S. Industrial Motor Systems

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In the U.S., industrial electric motor systems account for over 70% of manufacturing electricity consumption. Motors are used to drive pumps, fans, compressed air systems, material handling, processing systems and more. Industrial motor systems represent a largely untapped cost-effective source for industrial energy efficiency savings that could be realized with existing commercialized technologies. A major barrier to effective policy making for government and utilities in the U.S. related to energy efficiency improvement in industrial motor systems is the lack of information and data on the magnitude and cost-effectiveness of these energy savings potential in each state in the U.S. and a comprehensive strategy and roadmap.

Global Efficiency Intelligence, LLC has been working on an initiative to study and analyze the industrial motor systems in different states in the United States. We have 30 States from different regions in the U.S. that are included in this initiative. All top 20 U.S. states in terms of industrial energy consumption are included in this initiative. We work with various public and private stakeholders on this project. This initiative focuses on industrial pumps, fans, and compressed air systems which together account for over 80% of electricity use in industrial motor systems in the U.S. We conduct various analyses at the state-level such as analyzing the energy use by each motor system type and system size at manufacturing subsector level (e.g. chemical, food, textile, steel, machinery, pulp and paper, etc.), analyzing energy saving potentials and cost by technology and system size for each state, analyzing barriers and drivers to energy efficiency and system optimization in industrial motor systems in each state, and analyzing policy making and market implications for each state.

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19 Emerging Technologies for Energy-efficiency and GHG Emissions Reduction in the Cement and Concrete Industry

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The cement industry accounts for approximately 5 percent of current anthropogenic carbon dioxide (CO2) emissions worldwide (WBCSD/IEA 2009a). World cement demand and production are increasing; annual world cement production is expected to grow from approximately 4,100 million tonnes (Mt) in 2015 to around 4,800 Mt in 2030 and grow even further after that. The largest share of this growth will take place in developing countries, especially in the Asian continent. This significant increase in cement production is associated with a significant increase in the cement industry’s absolute energy use and greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions..

Figure 1. Global cement production from 1990 to 2030

Figure 1. Global cement production from 1990 to 2030

Studies have documented the potential to save energy by implementing commercially-available energy-efficiency technologies and measures in the cement industry worldwide. However, today, given the projected continuing increase in absolute cement production, future reductions (e.g., by 2030 or 2050) in absolute energy use and CO2 emissions will require further innovation in this industry. Innovations will likely include development of different processes and materials for cement production or technologies that can economically capture and store the industry’s CO2 emissions. The development of these emerging technologies and their deployment in the market will be a key factor in the cement industry’s mid- and long-term climate change mitigation strategies.

Many studies from around the world have identified commercialized sector-specific and cross- energy-efficiency technologies for the cement industry that have already been (See figure below).

Figure 2.  Commercialized  energy efficiency technologies and measures for cement production process (Source: IIP, 2017)

Figure 2. Commercialized energy efficiency technologies and measures for cement production process (Source: IIP, 2017)

However, information is scarce and scattered regarding emerging energy-efficiency and low-carbon technologies for the cement industry that have not yet been commercialized.

A few years ago, while I was working at Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory, my colleagues and I wrote a report that consolidated available information on emerging technologies for the cement industry with the goal of giving engineers, researchers, investors, cement companies, policy makers, and other interested parties easy access to a well-structured database of information on this topic.

The information about the 19 emerging technologies covered in the report and was presented using a standard structure for each technology. Table below shows the list of the technologies covered.

Table 1.  Emerging  energy-efficiency and CO2 emissions-reduction technologies for cement and concrete production (Hasanbeigi et al. 2012)

Table 1. Emerging energy-efficiency and CO2 emissions-reduction technologies for cement and concrete production (Hasanbeigi et al. 2012)

Shifting away from conventional processes and products will require a number of developments including: education of producers and consumers; new standards; aggressive research and development to address the issues and barriers confronting emerging technologies; government support and funding for development and deployment of emerging technologies; rules to address the intellectual property issues related to dissemination of new technologies; and financial incentives (e.g. through carbon trading mechanisms) to make emerging low-carbon technologies, which might have a higher initial costs, competitive with the conventional processes and products.

Our report is published on LBNL’s website and can be downloaded from this Link. Please feel free to contact me if you have any question. Don't forget to follow us on LinkedInFacebook, and Twitter to get the latest about our new blog posts, projects, and publications.

Some of our related publications are:

  • Hasanbeigi, Ali; Agnes Lobscheid; Hongyou, Lu; Price, Lynn; Yue Dai (2013). Quantifying the Co-benefits of Energy-Efficiency Programs: A Case-study for the Cement Industry in Shandong Province, China. Science of the Total Environment. Volumes 458–460, 1 August 2013, Pages 624-636.
  • Hasanbeigi, Ali; Morrow, William; Masanet, Eric; Sathaye, Jayant; Xu, Tengfang. 2013. Energy Efficiency Improvement Opportunities in the Cement Industry in China. Energy Policy Volume 57, June 2013, Pages 287–297
  • Morrow, William; Hasanbeigi, Ali; Sathaye, Jayant; Xu, Tengfang. 2014. Assessment of Energy Efficiency Improvement and CO2 Emission Reduction Potentials in India’s Cement and Iron & Steel Industries. Journal of Cleaner Production. Volume 65, 15 February 2014, Pages 131–141
  • Hasanbeigi, Ali; Menke, Christoph; Therdyothin, Apichit (2010). Technical and Cost Assessment of Energy Efficiency Improvement and Greenhouse Gas Emissions Reduction Potentials in Thai Cement Industry. Energy Efficiency. DOI 10.1007/s12053-010-9079-1
  • Hasanbeigi, Ali; Menke, Christoph; Therdyothin, Apichit (2010). The Use of Conservation Supply Curves in Energy Policy and Economic Analysis: the Case Study of Thai Cement Industry. Energy Policy 38 (2010) 392–405
  • Hasanbeigi, Ali; Price, Lynn; Hongyou, Lu; Lan, Wang (2010). Analysis of Energy-Efficiency Opportunities for the Cement Industry in Shandong Province, China: A Case-Study of Sixteen Cement Plants. Energy-the International Journal 35 (2010) 3461-3473.

 

References:

Hasanbeigi, Ali; Price, Lynn; Lin, Elina. (2012). Emerging Energy Efficiency and CO2 Emissions Reduction Technologies for Cement and Concrete  Production. Berkeley, CA: Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory LBNL-5434E.

Institute for Industrial Productivity, 2012. Cement energy efficiency technologies.

World Business Council for Sustainable Development (WBCSD)/International Energy Agency (IEA). 2009a. Cement Technology Roadmap 2009 - Carbon emissions reductions up to 2050.

World Business Council for Sustainable Development (WBCSD)/International Energy Agency (IEA). 2009b. Cement roadmap targets.


Utilities large missed opportunity: Demand Response in manufacturing

Demand Response (DR) helps utilities to manage the peak electricity demand by temporarily shifting the demand on the consumer side instead of building new power plants to meet the short-time peak demand. On the other hand, customers use demand response to reduce their electrical cost using the time-of-use price signals. Nowadays, work is underway to automate the process using automated demand response (AutoDR).

In this post I will not get into the details of DR or AutoDR and rather discuss the DR potential in the manufacturing sector. I believe one of the main barriers to DR in manufacturing is that the DR potential in this sector is not well understood by utilities, companies and other parties involved.

Based on my experience on energy efficiency and demand side management in industry in the past 10 years, for a manufacturing sector or process to have a great potential for Demand Response (DR), it should have one or more of the four characteristics shown in the figure below.

Note: A bottleneck is a stage in a process that causes the entire process and the production rate of the final product to slow down.

Let me open this by giving a few examples below from an energy-intensive industry (cement industry) and a non-energy-intensive industry (textile industry).

Example 1- DR potential in the cement industry:

In a simple form, cement production process consists of raw material (mostly limestone) grinding, high temperature kiln for clinker making, and finish grinding of clinker and some additives into cement.

The electricity use in a cement plant ranges between 90 to 150 kWh/tonne cement depending on the grinding technology, raw material properties, etc. A cement plant may have a production capacity of less than 1000 tonne per day to more than 10,000 tonne per day. Therefore, the amount of electricity use by a cement plant can be quite substantial. Over 70% of the electricity use in cement plant is used in raw material grinding and finish grinding processes.

The raw material grinding process has the following three DR-friendly characteristics:

  1. It is a batch process
  2. It has large storage capacity for its output (ground raw material) which last for hours and often for days
  3. The following process (which is kiln) can be considered a bottleneck of the production. This combined with large storage capacity before the bottleneck process (#2) provides a perfect condition for DR.

The finish grinding process has the following three DR-friendly characteristics:

  1. It is a batch process
  2. There is a large storage capacity after kiln for ground clinker (and before finish grinding), which last for hours if not days.
  3. If production scheduling is flexible, the operation of finish grinding to produce the final cement product can be delayed for a few hours while the previous process can continue their operation.

If we assume that an exemplary cement plant uses 120 kWh/tonne cement of which 70% (84 kWh/tonne cement) used in raw material grinding and finish grinding, and produces 3000 tonne cement pre day (125 tonne/hour), every hour of shift in the operation of both raw material grinding and finish grinding in response to a DR signal will result in 125*84=10,500 kWh reduction in electricity demand.

This is roughly equal to average daily electricity consumption of 350 U.S. residential utility customers. If only the production of either raw material grinding or finish grinding is shifted, this reduction will be cut by almost half. This is such a large DR potential that I am going to hope all utilities and cement companies are taking advantage of it.

Example 2- DR potential in the textile industry:

There are many DR potential in the textile industry. I have done substantial work on this sector and can talk for hours on EE and DR potential in different textile subsectors and process. However, since this post is getting a bit longer than I planned, I will just briefly mention two DR potentials for this industry. If you like to know more, feel free to contact me.

The first example for the textile industry is in the yarn production process. One of the main process is called “spinning process” which uses different machines such as Ring frame, Open-end machines, etc. The spinning process has the following two DR-friendly characteristics:

  1. It is a batch process
  2. It is a bottleneck process. Often, intermediary products that are fed into spinning machines get lined up for hours on the plant floor waiting to be processed by spinning machines. Having a proper storage capacity will allow to store enough feeding product for spinning machines and shut down the previous process, which account for around 30%-40% of electricity demand of the entire yarn production plants, for few hours during the DR period.

Another significant potential for DR in the textile industry is in wet-processing plants. Wet-processing plants conduct preparation, dyeing, printing, and/or finishing of yarn and fabric and other textile products. Many batch processes exist in wet-processing plants. Also, several processes like dryer, Stenter, or batch dyeing machines can be bottleneck processes that provide DR opportunity. Often wet-processing plants work on several different orders and products; thus, proper production scheduling can provide great DR opportunity. To take advantage of this, there needs to be high level of coordination between different departments within a plant who are in charge of production planning, energy management, paying utility bills, etc. Figure below illustrate the concept of DR potential in production processes with batch processing, storage capacity and a bottleneck process.

To sum up, manufacturing sector is a complex and heterogeneous sector. Even within one industry subsector (for example, textile or food industry), there are completely different subsectors. However, there are great potentials for energy saving and Demand Response in the manufacturing sector. More in-depth understanding of production processes and technologies and energy systems in each manufacturing subsector will allow us to tap into these potential. 

Please feel free to contact me if you have any question. Also, don't forget to follow us on LinkedInFacebook, and Twitter to get the latest about our new blog posts, projects, and publications.