Decarbonization Roadmap for California’s Cement and Concrete Industry


The cement industry accounts for over 5 percent of current man-made carbon dioxide emissions worldwide. World cement demand and production are increasing; annual world cement production is expected to grow from approximately 4,100 million tonnes (Mt) in 2015 to around 4,800 Mt in 2030 and grow even further after that. The largest share of this growth will take place in developing countries, especially in the Asian continent.

According to USGS, United States produced around 86 Mt of cement in 2016 making it the third largest cement producer in the world after China and India. The state of California has 10 cement plants that together produced around 10 Mt of cement in 2015 making it the second largest cement producing state in the U.S. after Texas. This significant cement production in California is associated with a substantial energy use and greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions in the state. The cement industry in California is the largest consumer of coal in the state. Therefore, there is a need to develop a roadmap on how to reduce energy use and GHG emissions related to cement and concrete production in California.

Given our extensive experience in this area, Global Efficiency Intelligence, LLC is conducting a study for the Sierra Club to develop a roadmap for decarbonizing California’s cement and concrete industry. In this study, we will look into current status of the cement and concrete production in California and conduct a benchmarking analysis for the energy use and emissions of the cement industry in California in comparison with some other key cement producing countries. In addition, we will look into options that can help to decarbonize the cement and concrete production in California such as energy efficiency, fuel switching, alternative raw material and products, and carbon capture, utilization, and storage (CCUS).

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Some of our related publications are:

  • Hasanbeigi, Ali; Agnes Lobscheid; Hongyou, Lu; Price, Lynn; Yue Dai (2013). Quantifying the Co-benefits of Energy-Efficiency Programs: A Case-study for the Cement Industry in Shandong Province, China. Science of the Total Environment. Volumes 458–460, 1 August 2013, Pages 624-636.
  • Hasanbeigi, Ali; Morrow, William; Masanet, Eric; Sathaye, Jayant; Xu, Tengfang. 2013. Energy Efficiency Improvement Opportunities in the Cement Industry in China. Energy Policy Volume 57, June 2013, Pages 287–297
  • Morrow, William; Hasanbeigi, Ali; Sathaye, Jayant; Xu, Tengfang. 2014. Assessment of Energy Efficiency Improvement and CO2 Emission Reduction Potentials in India’s Cement and Iron & Steel Industries. Journal of Cleaner Production. Volume 65, 15 February 2014, Pages 131–141
  • Hasanbeigi, Ali; Menke, Christoph; Therdyothin, Apichit (2010). Technical and Cost Assessment of Energy Efficiency Improvement and Greenhouse Gas Emissions Reduction Potentials in Thai Cement Industry. Energy Efficiency. DOI 10.1007/s12053-010-9079-1
  • Hasanbeigi, Ali; Menke, Christoph; Therdyothin, Apichit (2010). The Use of Conservation Supply Curves in Energy Policy and Economic Analysis: the Case Study of Thai Cement Industry. Energy Policy 38 (2010) 392–405
  • Hasanbeigi, Ali; Price, Lynn; Hongyou, Lu; Lan, Wang (2010). Analysis of Energy-Efficiency Opportunities for the Cement Industry in Shandong Province, China: A Case-Study of Sixteen Cement Plants. Energy-the International Journal 35 (2010) 3461-3473.