Demand response

Infographic: Textile and Apparel Industry’s Energy and Water Consumption and Pollutions Profile

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Although the textile and apparel industry is not considered an energy-intensive industry, it comprises a large number of plants that, together, consume a significant amount of energy which result in substantial greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions too. 



The textile and apparel industry and especially textile wet-processing is one of the largest consumers of water in manufacturing and also one of the main producers of industrial wastewater. Since various chemicals are used in different textile processes like pre-treatment, dyeing, printing, and finishing, the textile wastewater contains many toxic chemicals which if not treated properly before discharging to the environment, can cause serious environmental damage.

With global population growth and the emergence of fast fashion, the worldwide textile and apparel production are increasing rapidly. In 2014, an average consumer bought 60% more clothing compared to that in 2000, but kept each garment only half as long.

The Infographic below shows the Textile and Clothing Industry’s Energy and Water Consumption and Pollutions Profile.

Don't forget to Follow us on LinkedIn and Facebook to get the latest about our new blog posts, projects, and publications. Also see below our related publications and tools.

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Some of our related publications and tools are:

1.     Hasanbeigi, Ali; Price, Lynn; (2015). A Technical Review of Emerging Technologies for Energy and Water Efficiency and Pollution Reduction in the Textile Industry. Journal of Cleaner Production. 

2.   Hasanbeigi, Ali (2013). Emerging Technologies for an Energy-Efficient, Water-Efficient, and Low-Pollution Textile Industry. Berkeley, CA: Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory. LBNL-6510E

3.     Hasanbeigi, Ali; Hasanabadi, Abdollah; Abdolrazaghi, Mohamad, (2012). Energy Intensity Analysis for Five Major Sub-Sectors of the Textile Industry. Journal of Cleaner Production 23 (2012) 186-194

4.     Hasanbeigi, Ali; Price, Lynn (2012). A Review of Energy Use and Energy Efficiency Technologies for the Textile Industry. Renewable and Sustainable Energy Reviews 16 (2012) 3648– 3665.

5.    Also, you can check out the Energy Efficiency Assessment and Greenhouse Gas Emission Reduction Tool for the Textile Industry (EAGER Textile), which I developed a few years ago while still working at LBNL. EAGER Textile tool allows users to conduct a simple techno-economic analysis to evaluate the impact of selected energy efficiency measures in a textile plant by choosing the measures that they would likely introduce in a facility, or would like to evaluate for potential use.


36 Emerging Technologies for Energy-efficiency and GHG Emissions Reduction in the Pulp and Paper Industry

The pulp and paper industry accounted for approximately 5 percent of total industrial final energy consumption and 2 percent of direct carbon dioxide (CO2) emissions from the industrial sector worldwide (IEA 2011). (Note: Direct CO2 emissions are emissions from fossil fuel use and chemical reactions produced onsite and do not include emissions associated with purchased steam and electricity.) World paper and paperboard demand and production are increasing; annual production is expected to grow from approximately 365 million tonnes (Mt) in 2006 to between 700 Mt (low estimate) and 900 Mt (high estimate) in 2050. The largest share of this growth will take place in China, India, and other developing countries (see Figure below). This significant increase in paper production will cause a corresponding significant increase in the pulp and paper industry’s absolute energy consumption and greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions.

Note: OECD is an acronym for the Organization for Economic Co-operation and Development  Figure           SEQ Figure \* ARABIC      1      . Annual world paper and paperboard production (IEA 2009)

Note: OECD is an acronym for the Organization for Economic Co-operation and Development

Figure 1. Annual world paper and paperboard production (IEA 2009)

Studies have documented the potential to save energy by implementing commercially-available energy-efficiency technologies and measures in the pulp and paper industry worldwide. However, today, given the projected continuing increase in absolute paper production, future reductions (e.g., by 2030 or 2050) in absolute energy use and CO2 emissions will require further innovation in this industry. Innovations will likely include development of different processes and materials for paper production or technologies that can economically capture and store the industry’s CO2 emissions. The development of these emerging technologies and their deployment in the market will be a key factor in the pulp and paper industry’s mid- and long-term climate change mitigation strategies.

Many studies from around the world have identified sector-specific and cross- energy-efficiency technologies for the pulp and paper industry that have already been commercialized (See figure below). However, information is scarce and scattered regarding emerging or advanced energy-efficiency and low-carbon technologies for the pulp and paper industry that have not yet been commercialized.

Figure: Commercialized energy efficiency technologies and measures for pulp and paper industry (Source: IIP, 2012)

Figure: Commercialized energy efficiency technologies and measures for pulp and paper industry (Source: IIP, 2012)

My colleagues at Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory and I wrote a report that consolidated available information on emerging technologies for the pulp and paper industry with the goal of giving engineers, researchers, investors, paper companies, policy makers, and other interested parties easy access to a well-structured database of information on this topic.

The information about the 36 emerging technologies for the pulp and paper industry was covered in the report and was presented using a standard structure for each technology. Table below shows the list of the technologies covered.

Table. Emerging energy-efficiency and CO2 emissions-reduction technologies for the pulp and paper industry (Kong and Hasanbeigi, et al. 2013 and 2015)

Shifting away from conventional processes and products will require a number of developments including: education of producers and consumers; new standards; aggressive research and development to address the issues and barriers confronting emerging technologies; government support and funding for development and deployment of emerging technologies; rules to address the intellectual property issues related to dissemination of new technologies; and financial incentives (e.g. through carbon trading mechanisms) to make emerging low-carbon technologies, which might have a higher initial costs, competitive with the conventional processes and products.

Our report is published on LBNL’s website and can be downloaded from this Link. Please feel free to contact me if you have any question.

Don't forget to Follow us on LinkedIn and Facebook to get the latest about our new blog posts, projects, and publications.

Some of our related publications are:

  1. Kong, Lingbo; Hasanbeigi, Ali; Price, Lynn, Huanbin Liu (2015). Energy conservation and CO2 mitigation potentials in the Chinese pulp and paper industry. Resource Conservation and Recycling (Accepted- In Press. Available online 29 May 2015).
  2. Kong, Lingbo; Price, Lynn; Hasanbeigi, Ali; Liu, Huanbin; Li, Jigeng. (2013) Potential for Reducing Paper Mill Energy Use and Carbon Dioxide Emissions through Plant-wide Energy Audits: A Case Study in China. Applied Energy, Volume 102, February 2013, Pages 1334–1342
  3. Kong, Lingbo; Hasanbeigi, Ali; Price, Lynn, Huanbin Liu (2013). Analysis of Energy-Efficiency Opportunities for the Pulp and Paper Industry in China. Berkeley, CA: Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory. LBNL-6107E

References:

  • Kong, Lingbo; Hasanbeigi, Ali; Price, Lynn (2015). Assessment of emerging energy-efficiency technologies for the pulp and paper industry: A technical review. Journal of Cleaner Production. Volume 122, 20 May 2016, Pages 5–28
  • Kong, Lingbo; Hasanbeigi, Ali; Price, Lynn (2013). Emerging Energy Efficiency and Greenhouse Gas Mitigation Technologies for the Pulp and Paper Industry. Berkeley, CA: Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory. LBNL-5956E.
  • Institute for Industrial Productivity, 2012. Pulp and paper energy efficiency technologies.
  • International Energy Agency (IEA). 2011. Energy Transition for Industry: India and the Global Context. Paris, France.
  • International Energy Agency (IEA). 2009. Energy Technology Transitions for Industry - Strategies for the Next Industrial Revolution. Paris, France.